Medications that one can buy easily off the shelf at just about any pharmacy are often taken for granted. Consumers think these medications are not as harmless as the ones sold on the street or the prescription drugs that are abused by people who either don’t know or care about the dangers.
But people who think either of these are wrong. OTC drugs or those bought over-the-counter are just as dangerous as street drugs and prescription medications, and people who ignore the labels on them and use them in ways that are inconsistent with their purpose are putting themselves in harm’s way. They are at risk of overdosing or double dosing on OTC medications, a situation that can lead to death or a battle with addiction.
What Are Over-the-Counter Medications?
Over-the-counter medications are drugs consumers can buy at any store, pharmacy, convenience store, or large discount retailer without a doctor’s prescription. The drugs, also known as OTC drugs, are deemed safe and effective when users follow directions on the label or take them as directed by a medical professional, according to the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA).
It is estimated there are more than 80 classes of OTC drugs available to the public. They include pain relievers, allergy medications, and weight-loss products. The medications that are widely used are those that treat colds and the flu, minor body aches and pains, allergies, and other ailments. They can come in the form of capsules, tablets, eye drops, sprays, and ointments, among other forms. Ingredients of these medications and the labels put on them are reviewed by the FDA.
Over-the-counter drugs include:
- Cough medicines (Delsym, Nyquil, Robitussin, and Theraflu)
- Allergy medications and decongestants (Sudafed)
- Motion sickness medication
- Pain relievers (Acetaminophen, which is found in Tylenol, Excedrin, Dayquil, Mucinex); ibuprofen, which is found in Advil; Motrin)
- Dietary supplements and laxatives
What Are the Signs of OTC Drug Addiction?
People who have a history of substance abuse are at a higher risk of abusing over-the-counter medications or developing OTC drug addiction. Populations that are addicted to opioids and/or other drugs may misuse these medications because they provide some relief from uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms that often follow long-term drug or alcohol use.
As people use drugs and alcohol over time, they build up a tolerance for those substances. This means they will require more of the substance to experience the same effects they first did when they started using. This, in turn, means they likely reach a point where they have trouble satisfying strong drug cravings despite what they do. OTC medications may not be enough to relieve the pain or create the highs substance users are used to. That, unfortunately, means they can overdose from taking too much of an over-the-counter drug, which they likely view as safer to take than prescription drugs or street drugs.
Senior adults, as well as teenagers and young adults, are also among the groups of people who are most likely to misuse over-the-counter drugs. Seniors buy and take more medications than other groups, which means they are at high risk of mistakenly mixing alcohol and drugs if they also still drink.
Teens and young adults may trust OTC drugs more because they are generally viewed as medicines they can get from medical professionals or friends or family. They also don’t have to buy OTC medications from a drug dealer on the streets, making the drugs more appealing for misuse and abuse.
Addiction does leave clues in many cases. If you notice these signs in a loved one, it is possible they could be struggling with over-the-counter drug addiction.
Behavioral and Environmental Signs
- Multiple empty medicine bottles in their trash
- Regularly purchasing large amounts of OTC drugs when not medically needed
- Ordering bulk OTC medications online
- Noticeable collections of medicine bottles, packs, or sprays in easy-to-reach locations
- Cold and allergy drugs or pain relievers disappearing from your medicine cabinet
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Personal Mental and Physical Signs
- Significant appetite changes
- Medicinal scents or odors on their breath, clothing
- Withdrawal from social situations
- Appearing depressed or withdrawn
- A decline in school or work performance
- Secretive behavior
- Disrupted sleep or altered sleep pattern
- A lack of interest in hobbies and activities they previously enjoyed
- Noticeable mood swings and changes in personality
- Sudden outbursts of anger
- Impaired motor skills
- Difficulty remembering important things
- Money or valuables suddenly going missing
One of the most important signs is how one feels or behaves when they suddenly stop taking over-the-counter medication after misusing or abusing it for long periods. If one quits using the drug or cuts back on usage and begins to feel sick or some other way, it is possible they are addicted to over-the-counter medications and will need help. These physical and psychological changes are known as withdrawal.
Some will attempt to do this on their own and quit OTC drug use cold turkey.This is not recommended. An abrupt stop in use is dangerous and for almost all physically addictive drugs. One reason it’s a risk is that one can easily overdose as they try to appease the strong cravings they feel as they try to manage withdrawal symptoms.
If any of these signs of over-the-counter abuse are recognizable, it may be time to consider getting help. Professional addiction treatment can get you back on track to an addiction-free life.
What Is Involved in OTC Drug Addiction Treatment?
People who are struggling with over-the-counter drug abuse may want to consider seeking professional drug rehabilitation treatment at a licensed facility. Such treatment involves different stages and steps. Factors such as the age, medical history, the type of over-the-counter medication that was abused, how long it was abused, and if it was abused along with other drugs are just a few factors that will be considered before a plan is created. These factors vary by the person, so no two drug treatment plans are exactly the same. A person’s mental health history also may be evaluated to determine if there are any co-occurring disorders present and if those also need to be addressed as part of the recovery plan.
Along with things like relapse prevention and 12-step programs, some therapies and programs offered during OTC addiction treatment are:
- Behavior therapy
- Family therapy
- Aftercare services
Some people with OTC drug addiction may want to consider getting help at a licensed drug rehabilitation center that can offer quality treatment. Treatment typically starts with a medical detoxification, or detox for short. This process ensures that any over-the-counter drugs and any other toxic substances are safely removed from the body.
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You will not be alone during this procedure, which can last anywhere from three to seven days or longer, depending on how severe the addiction is and whether more than one substance is involved, such as other drugs and/or alcohol. Medical professionals monitor clients 24-7 as they are weaned off the drug(s). If appropriate, health care professionals may set a tapering schedule to gradually allow the body adequate time to adjust to the absence of drugs in its system.
After detox is done and clients are stable, they are evaluated to see which treatment program they will need to effectively address their addiction. Treatment programs are tailored to an individual’s needs and preferences, so this is the time to be upfront about anything that could make the program more effective. This includes being honest about all substance use, habits and anything else that’s relevant.
Inpatient or residential treatment, which can last from 28-90 days in a facility, depending on the program, involves therapies that can help the person overcome their addiction in the time they need. Treatment also can incorporate 12-step programs, holistic therapy, family therapy, individual and group counseling, and relapse prevention education.
There is also outpatient treatment for people who may be in the early stages of OTC drug addiction or have a mild case of it. Outpatient therapy does not require an on-site stay at a treatment center, an arrangement that gives clients more flexibility as they work drug treatment into their schedules. However, outpatient clients are still required to attend structured sessions three to five times a week or more, depending on the situation.
Recovering OTC drug users may want to consider using aftercare services to help them focus on their recovery goals and reduce their chances of relapse. Some people pursue follow-up medical care and ongoing therapies to help manage post-acute withdrawal symptoms, known as PAWS, which can happen long after dependence on the drug has passed.
How Dangerous Is OTC Drug Addiction?
The easy access to OTC drugs, as well their widespread availability, can lower people’s inhibitions when it comes to handling them. This means people may misuse them or abuse them and this can lead to addiction. It is best to keep in mind that OTC drugs, despite their lack of a prescription, are still drugs.
Taking them incorrectly or taking them too much can cause side effects and risks after taking them, especially if they are taken at doses that are higher than recommended. Also, keep in mind that OTC drugs can still cause unfavorable drug or food interactions that can cause complications and end in a hospital visit. The most serious results from OTC drug abuse are addiction and death.
- Taking more of the OTC medication than recommended
- Using OTC drugs in ways that are inconsistent with its purpose or design
- Combining OTC drugs with other drugs, legal or illegal, and/or alcohol (polysubstance abuse)
- Using drugs for a length of time that one is now dependent upon them, either physically, psychologically, or both
The Poison Center advises that when it comes to OTC medications, reading and understanding the label the most important part of taking or giving medicine. Over-the-counter substances do contain mind-altering and mood-altering effects that can result in health problems and overdoses that can prove fatal. Irresponsible OTC drug use can cause memory loss, kidney failure, heart problems, and more.
Overdose on OTC Drugs
In major situations in which an overdose has occurred, it is strongly advised that you seek immediate medical attention at a hospital or urgent care center, even if the person has overdosed on Tylenol or aspirin, which some see as harmless. Midol, Advil, Epsom salts, and cough syrup are also OTC drugs that users can overdose on. As mentioned above, the toxicity of these drugs can happen and negatively affect one’s health.
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Ways to Avoid OTC Drug Abuse, Addiction
The OTC Medicine Safety Program offers several tips that can help keep OTC drug users safe. Adults who are teaching children, tweens, and teenagers how to take medicines may also find the guidelines helpful. They are:
- Read and follow the medicine label every time.
- Never to share your medicine with someone else or use someone else’s medicine.
- Remember to always use the dosing device that comes with the medicine.
- Take only one medicine at a time with the same active ingredient.
- Store all medicines up and away and out of reach and sight.
- Take medicines with the permission and guidance from a parent or trusted adult.
OTC Drug Addiction Statistics
- According to the Consumer Healthcare Products Association, as of 2015, the average American household reportedly spent roughly $338 a year on over-the-counter medication.
- As of 2018, 81 percent of U.S. adults use OTC drugs as their first line of treatment for minor illnesses.
- About one of every 10 teenagers has abused an OTC medication for the specific purpose of getting high at least once in their lifetime, according to the Drug Enforcement Association (DEA).
Begin Your Journey to Recovery Today With Us
If you or someone you know is struggling with OTC drug addiction abuse or addiction to other substances or alcohol, Arete Recovery can help you today. Call us now at 888-263-0631 or contact us online so we can help find the right treatment program for you at our facility. When you call, we’ll walk you through the process to help determine if you need addiction treatment services for stimulants abuse or another arrangement that better fits your needs.
Arete Recovery, based in Pembroke Pines, Florida, is a Delphi Behavioral Health Group facility. Our clients experience the Delphi Difference when they walk through our doors. As with other Delphi facilities, we inspire wellness and growth in our clients with personal treatment plans that address their specific needs and keep our client-to-clinician ratio low so you get the individualized treatment you need and deserve.
We make a long-term commitment to your recovery and offer you aftercare services to ensure you have what you need as you leave our facility and start life again post-treatment. If you need addiction treatment, get it now. Don’t delay.
AAPCC, (October, 2015).Over-the-Counter Medicine Safety. Poison Help. Retrieved March, 2018 from http://www.aapcc.org/
Cummings, Emily. “5 Common, Over-the-Counter Medicines That Could Kill You If You Take Too Much.” Desert News Service; News 5 Cleveland. Retrieved April 13, 2018, from https://www.news5cleveland.com/news/health/5-common-over-the-counter-medicines-that-could-kill-you-if-you-take-too-much
DEA, (August, 2012).How Teens Abuse Medicine. Drug Enforcement Agency. Retrieved March, 2018 from https://www.dea.gov
Pharma Technology Focus, (February, 2018).Defining Drugs. Pharma Technology Focus. Retrieved March, 2018 from http://www.nridigital.com
Trix, V, (October, 2009).Abuse of Dimenhydrinate. Bright Hub. Retrieved March, 2018 from https://www.brighthub.com
U.S. Food and Drug Administration, (September, 2017).Understanding Over-the-Counter Medicines. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved April, 2018 from https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/BuyingUsingMedicineSafely/UnderstandingOver-the-CounterMedicines/default.htm